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Assessing the role of economic instruments in policy mixes for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision (POLICYMIX)

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Basic project information

POLICYMIX has analysed economic instruments for biodiversity conservation in a mix of operational conservation policy instruments. To this end, POLICYMIX has developed an integrated evaluation framework that considers multiple policy assessment criteria – biodiversity and ecosystem service provision indicators; valuation of their economic benefit and policy implementation costs; social and distributional impacts; and legal and institutional constraints – at different levels of government.

Policymix practitioners in forest
Photo: Eeva Primmer

The project has evaluated the cost‐effectiveness and benefits of a range of economic instruments in a mix of policy instruments, including direct regulation through command‐and‐control in a variety of European and Latin American case studies. The POLICYMIX case studies in European and Latin American countries provide complementary examples of innovative economic instruments such as Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and ecological fiscal transfers, and allow assessingthe possibilities for transfer of policy success stories, providing concrete learning possibilities for policy‐makers.

The Finnish case study has evaluated national and regional biodiversity conservation instruments, with a particular focus on the payment like economic instruments under the METSO Programme in South-Western Finland.

Publications produced in the POLICYMIX project include:

Primmer, E.  2017. Institutional constraints on conservation auction: organizational mandate, competencies and practices. Land Use Policy 63, Pages 621–631.

Borg, R., Toikka, A., Primmer, E. 2015. Social Capital and Governance: A social network analysis of forest biodiversity collaboration in Central Finland. Forest Policy and Economics 50, 90-7.

Makkonen, M., Huttunen, S., Primmer, E., Repo, A., Hildén, M. 2015. Policy coherence in climate change mitigation: an ecosystem service approach to forests as carbon sinks and bioenergy sources. Forest Policy and Economics 50, 153-162.  

Primmer, E., Paloniemi, R., Similä, J., Tainio A. 2014. Forest owner perceptions of institutions and voluntary contracting for biodiversity conservation: Not crowding out but staying out. Ecological Economics 103, 1-10.

Similä, J., Pölönen, I., Fredrikson, J.,Primmer, E., Horne, P. 2014. Biodiversity Protection in Private Forests: An Analysis of Compliance. Journal of Environmental Law 0, 1–21.

Primmer, E., Paloniemi, R., Similä, J., Barton, D.N. 2013. Evolution in Finland's forest biodiversity conservation payments and the institutional constraints on establishing new policy. Society & Natural Resources 26(10), 1137-1154.

Raitanen, E., Similä, J., Siikavirta, K., Primmer, E. 2013. Economic Instruments for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Conservation & the EU State Aid Regulation. European Environmental & Planning Law 10(1), 6-28.

Website of the POLICYMIX Research Project (

Published 2014-05-15 at 14:02, updated 2017-04-24 at 10:13